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Principal component analysis showing genetic variation between indica (green), temperate japonica (light blue),…

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Keywords: ABA; GA; GWAS; japonica rice; plant hormones; pre-harvest sprouting.

Conflict of interest statement

Principal component analysis showing genetic…

Pre-harvest sprouting resistance variation of…

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Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS), induced by unexpected weather events, such as typhoons, at the late seed maturity stage, is becoming a serious threat to rice production, especially in the state of California, USA, Japan, and the Republic of Korea, where japonica varieties (mostly susceptible to PHS) are mainly cultivated. A projected economic loss by severe PHS in these three countries could range between 8-10 billion USD per year during the next 10 years. Here, we present promising rice germplasm with strong resistance to PHS that were selected from a diverse rice panel of accessions held in the International Rice Genebank (IRG) at the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI). To induce PHS, three panicle samples per accession were harvested at 20 and 30 days after flowering (DAF), respectively, and incubated at 100% relative humidity (RH), 30 °C in a growth chamber for 15 days. A genome-wide association (GWA) analysis using a 4.8 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) marker set was performed to identify loci and candidate genes conferring PHS resistance. Interestingly, two tropical japonica and four temperate japonica accessions showed outstanding PHS resistance as compared to tolerant indica accessions. Two major loci on chromosomes 1 and 4 were associated with PHS resistance. A priori candidate genes interactions with rice gene networks, which are based on the gene ontology (GO), co-expression, and other evidence, suggested that a key resistance mechanism is related to abscisic acid (ABA), gibberellic acid (GA), and auxin mediated signaling pathways.

Pre-harvest sprouting of temperate japonica rice harvested at 20 days after flowering on…

Vitamin E (tocols) is a key metabolite for efficient scavenging of lipid peroxy radicals that cause membrane breakdown during seed ageing. However, in rice, this hypothesis has been tested for very few lines only and without considering intraspecific variation in genomic structure. Here, we present a correlation study between tocols and seed longevity using a diverse rice panel. Seeds of 20 rice accessions held in the International Rice Genebank at the International Rice Research Institute, representing Aus, Basmati/Sadri, Indica, temperate Japonica and tropical Japonica variety groups, were used for tocols analysis (quantification of α-, β-, γ- and δ-tocopherol/tocotrienol by ultra-performance liquid chromatography) and storage experiments at 45°C and 10.9% seed moisture content. To examine the effects of DNA-haplotype on the phenotype, the 700 K high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism marker dataset was utilized. Both seed longevity (time for viability to fall to 50%; p 50 ) and tocols content varied across variety groups related to the heterogeneity in the genetic architecture. Among eight types of tocol homologues, α-tocopherol and γ-tocotrienol were significantly correlated with p 50 (negatively and positively, respectively). While temperate Japonica varieties were most abundant in α-tocopherol, Indica varieties recorded 1.3- to 1.7-fold higher γ-tocotrienol than those of other groups. We conclude that the specific ratio of tocol homologues rather than total tocols content plays an important role in the seed longevity mechanism.