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orange fruit bound seeds

Orange 1. Q. Can I grow an orange tree from the seed of an orange? Will such a tree ever produce good-to-eat oranges and, if so, how long will it be before a tree from seed produces fruit? A. The production of citrus in this marginal hard-freeze areas should be accomplished by planting in a sunny, southern exposure area which can be protected during severe cold or plant in a container which can be moved to a protected area. The main reasons that seed are not used is because the length of citrus seedling juvenility (non-productiveness) can be 7 years or longer. Also, oranges, grapefruit and limes are not cold hardy enough to have a chance of surviving unless protected from below 25 degrees F.. If you want citrus, you should wait until March and purchase a satsuma (mandarin). However, if you insist on planting an orange seed, you should know that citrus seed have the unusual characteristic of producing nucellar seedlings which are vegetative (identical to the mother-tree) rather than genetic in origin. From each seed planted, three sprouts can emerge. Two will be fast growing sprouts which are vegetative in nature and will produce a tree exactly like the one from which the fruit was obtained. The center, weak sprout, if it emerges, is the genetic or different-than-its-parent growth which should be removed. 2. Q: My daughter asked me a question regarding the gender of oranges. It is her belief that oranges with seeds are female while those without are male or neutral. Is there any truth to this? A: Gender of trees is associated with the flower rather than the fruit. Usually most flowers are perfect, meaning they have both male and female parts; an orange tree has a perfect flower. Some fruits need seeds to make growth hormones so that the fruit will develop normally, however there are a few fruit which develop without seed such as Oriental persimmons and navel Oranges. These trees are very susceptible to stress as stress causes the fruit to drop. So seediness of fruit is a function of the type of fruit, rather than the gender of the fruit. 3. Q: About three years ago, I planted a couple of orange seeds into a plant in my room and now they are all about a foot tall and look healthy. Will they grow to full size indoors?A: Full sized orange trees make a wide, roundish bush at least 8 to 10 feet tall and about that wide. So not only is space a limitation, but also sunlight. All fruit plants require full sunlight for optimum tree growth and production. So the light inside the house would never support that kind of growth either. Your best bet is to gradually step it up (transplant it) into larger containers ultimately ending with a container about the size of a wiskey barrel. As you step them up put them outside in full sunlight and allow them to grow to fill the container. Once they become root bound then they need to be transplanted again ending with a container about the size of a wiskey barrel. Be sure to include a slow release fertilizer in the media and water on a regular basis. It would be good if you included a water soluble fertilizer every month. Remember containers dry out much faster than plants growing in the ground. You will need to move them in when it gets cold or protect them from freezing in some manner. They can be easily covered as well. Since citrus grown from seed has a fairly long juvenile period, it will take about 7 to 8 years for it to flower and potentially bear fruit.
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Orange fruit bound seeds

H endrickson , R. & K esterton , J ames W. 1964. Citrus molasses. Gainesville, Florida Agricultural Experiment Station. Technical Bulletin 677. 27 p.

Citrus seeds are sometimes collected separately at the canning plants and subjected to an oil extraction process. The resulting oil cake is usually called citrus seed meal and compares favourably with many sources of vegetable protein. However, it contains limonin, a factor toxic to pigs and especially to poultry. Citrus seed meal is therefore unsuitable for these animals because at 5 percent inclusion it will reduce growth and at 20 percent it will cause mortality in growing chickens (Driggers et al., 1951). It is acceptable to ruminants and comparable to cottonseed oil cake with the same percentage of crude protein. There is thus no restriction on its inclusion in diets for ruminants.

Pigs prefer oranges and tangerines to grapefruit and the free choice feeding of citrus fruits, together with a protein supplement, has given good results with these animals (Gohl, 1970).

T able 1. Composition of citrus feeds

Of about 70 species of citrus only two, the grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) and the sweet orange (C. sinensis Pers.), are industrially processed on a large scale, mainly for juice or sections. The by-products are peel, rag (the stringy axis and white fibrous membrane) and—depending on the method of processing—citrus molasses and citrus seed meal. Another citrus fruit, the lime (C. aurantifolia [Cristm.] Swingle), is of importance in some countries where it is processed to yield lime oil and lime juice. The method of processing this fruit is different from that for grapefruit and sweet oranges and is dealt with separately.

U.S. D epartment of A griculture . 1962. Chemistry and technology of citrus, citrus products, and by-products. Washington, D.C. Agriculture Handbook No. 98. 99 p.

Citrus molasses

Citrus seed meal

Citrus pulp can be easily ammoniated. The simplest method is to load the waste into a long polyethylene sleeve and let ammonia gas from a “bomb” (ammonia under compression in a steel cylinder) into one end. The progress of the ammonia is easily followed as it turns the pulp brown and heats it. When the ammonia reaches the other (open) end of the sleeve the gas is turned off and the excess ammonia is aired off from the pulp before it is fed to cattle. The added nitrogen is insoluble in water and is stably bound to the organic matter, apparently combining with the pectin. The crude protein digestibility of ammoniated citrus pulp is about 60 percent (Volcani and Roderig, 1953).