Doxorubicin (Dox) is an anthracycline used in chemotherapy, although it causes toxicity and oxidative stress. Grape seed and skin extract (GSSE) is a mixture of polyphenolic compounds with antioxidant properties. To evaluate the hepato-toxicity of Dox on healthy rats as well as the protective effect of GSSE, rats were treated with GSSE (500mg/kg bw) during 8 days. At the 4th day of treatment, they received a single dose of Dox (20 mg/kg bw). After the treatment (9th day), livers were collected and processed for oxidative stress status. Dox increased MDA (+ 900%), decreased catalase (-60%) and increased peroxidase (+90%) and superoxide dismutase (+100%) activities. In this latter case Dox mainly increased the iron isoform. Furthermore Dox altered intracellular mediators as catalytic free iron (-75%), H₂O₂(-75%) and calcium (+30%). Dox also affected liver function by elevating plasma triacylglycerol and transaminases and liver morphology by altering its typical architecture. Importantly all Dox-induced liver disturbances were alleviated upon GSSE treatment. Dox induced liver toxicity and an oxidative stress mainly characterized by increased lipoperoxidation but not protein carbonylation. GSSE efficiently protected the liver from Dox-induced toxicity and appeared as a safe adjuvant that could be incorporated into chemotherapy protocols.
The tabloids had a field day when it transpired that the Dutch fertility doctor Jan Karbaat had secretly inseminated over 65 of his patients with his own sperm. Dr Karbaat was a progressive fertility pioneer in the 1970s and 80s who helped gay people and singles become pregnant. Today, he is remembered as a megalomaniac madman. But what about the women – and what about his many children? We meet some of them in ‘Seeds of Deceit’, which contrasts the grotesque story with an empathetic and human approach to the legacy they all bear today. ‘Seeds of Deceit’ is a series of three episodes of 45 minutes each and is a follow-up to Miriam Guttmann’s award-winning short film of the same name (CPH:DOX 2018).