B. If so, briefly describe the differences.
Any person who smuggles, trades, transports, carries, produces or illegally possesses marijuana may be criminally punished. Depending on the quantities, the depending on the quantity, the punishment could range from fixed term imprisonment (or criminal detention or public surveillance) of no more than 3 years to life imprisonment, in addition to fines.
A. Are the rules different for medical vs. adult recreational use?
18. What are the most critical issues currently facing the industry in your jurisdiction?
V. Special requirements
16. What is the legal status of access to financial services, including banking, merchant services, and cash handling?
Entry on cannabis in the Compendium of Materia Medica.
Influential bencao from different dynastic periods.
Approach to translation of technical terms
Representative bencao texts were selected for analysis, including influential bencao texts from different dynastic periods, thematic bencao texts dedicated to specialized topics, and regional bencao texts dedicated to specific geographic regions (Zhao and Chen, 2014). Additionally, modern Chinese materia medica compilations as well as texts focused on ethnic minority traditions in China were reviewed. The selected texts were organized chronologically by dynasty, and monographs on cannabis from bencao texts representing different historical periods were reviewed. The sources were analyzed based on the plant parts that were described, as well as the nature, flavor, actions and indications of the various cannabis materials within.
Recent archeological evidence from a 2700 year old tomb discovered in the Yanghai region of China’s Xinjiang province suggests that drug biotypes of cannabis were known to the ancient inhabitants of the region (Jiang et al., 2006), and genetic testing has shown that the 2700 year old cannabis specimens from the tomb maintain some similarities to feral cannabis that remains in the surrounding region today (Mukherjee et al., 2008). However, the Yanghai tomb housed a body of Caucasian ancestry (Russo et al., 2008), and the region was located well outside of the boundary of early Chinese cultural influence. In more central Chinese regions, archeological artifacts provide abundant evidence of hemp fiber but little evidence of drug cannabis, suggesting that the historical divergence of fiber and drug biotypes occurred early in Chinese history (Clarke and Merlin, 2013).
The notable contrast between the medical applications of cannabis in traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine has been poorly explored in current ethnopharmacological literature. Despite the fact that cannabis preparations have been extensively and consistently documented in Chinese bencao (materia medica) texts for